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Converting FreeBSD into PC-BSD
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sas_spidey01

Abstract




This post describes an example of how one can manually convert a FreeBSD installation into a PC-BSD one using the install disk. There are more elegant ways of doing it, such as pulling things from PC-BSDs SVN and compiling only PC-BSD specific components.




Disclaimers and warnings




This was done purely for 'fun' to see if the programs would work reasonably well. Which is why FreeBSD 7.0-Release was used as a base and PC-BSD 1.5.0 as the overlay (which is based on an old build of FreeBSD 6.3). I do not recommend, endorse, or even suggest actually doing something like this beyond exploratory or playful thoughts at heart !!!




If anyone actually tries this, your on your own.




If someone actually tries this they should probably use a PC-BSD 1.5.1 disk build, the files are newer.




Installing the PC-BSD v1.5.0-v1.5.1 update will install FreeBSD 6.3 files and may break your system -- note that I didn't enable the updater for my user account during this process.




Now that you are warned...




My test partition is reserved fro testing various alpha/beta/rc releases of operating systems I wish to test. So I wiped it clean and set out to install a basic working FreeBSD system.




I Installed FreeBSD 7.0-Release via CD-ROM, using the express option, auto
partitioning to save time, X-Developer dist set, and configured the system
lightly (set root pw, network services etc).



You want the X.org and related drivers from the disk, so they match your release level -- you also want source code for later to build a custom kernel (optional)




Booted the system and logged in as root, one vtty for work and one for logging my notes in vim over ssh.




Then began converting the system to a FreeBSD-PC-BSD hybrid. Since the FreeBSD auto mode for partitioning the slice only gave me a 512mb / and 512mb /tmp, I created a /usr/work directory to use.




NOTE:
actual PC-BSD systems require several gigs of space for / to ensure safe updates and this is noted during previous upgrade notes. My guess after reading some of the 1.4/1.5 scripts is the developers have 'yet' to figure out how to use mount -a for mounting the needed file systems before extracting files and reserved storage places with the default partitioning scheme



pkg_add -r lzma && rehash		# to unpack pc-bsd files
mount -t cd9690 /dev/acd0 /mnt		# mount pc-bsd disk 1
mkdir -m 0700 /usr/work
lzma d /mnt/PCBSD.tar.lzma /usr/work/PCBSD.tar
	...
					# lzma has fast decompression speeds but
					# this is a ~451mb lzma file being
					# unpacked into a 1.9gb tar file!

tar -C / -kpf /usr/work/PCBSD.tar	# extract files without overwrite 

cp /etc/rc.conf /etc/rc.conf.local	# fix rc.conf
tar -C /tmp -f /usr/work/PCBSD.tar -px './etc'
cp /tmp/etc/rc.conf /etc/rc.conf
cp /tmp/etc/devfs.conf /etc/devfs.conf	# modified in pc-bsd

vi /etc/ttys				# start x on boot up
	...				# note the ttyvNum is arbitrary
	#ttyv8	"/usr/local/bin/xdm -nodaemon"  xterm   off secure
	ttyv8   "/PCBSD/bin/pdm"                xterm   on secure
	...
X -configure && mv /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf

#
# create users and groups that come with PC-BSD 1.5.0 but not FreeBSD
# 7.0-Release. Numerical values for -u userid and -g groupid are taken from
# viewing a unified diff of the group files.
#
pw groupadd -n haldaemon -g 560
pw groupadd -n cups -g 193
pw groupadd -n cyrus -g 60
pw useradd -n haldaemon -u 560 -g 560 -L daemon -d /nonexistent \
  -s /usr/sbin/nologin
pw useradd -n cups -u 193 -g 193 -L daemon -d /nonexistent -s /usr/sbin/nologin
pw useradd -n cyrus -u 60 -g 60 -L daemon -d /nonexistent -s /usr/sbin/nologin

#
# add my own user with the bash shell as a test (because it. Note that I typically set
# user/group id numbers by year of birth.
#
pw groupadd -n Terry -g 1988
pw useradd -n Terry -u 1988 -L default -m -s bash -g Terry \
  -G wheel,operator
passwd Terry
	...

#
# now build a custom kernel merging GENERIC with /PCBSD/conf/PCBSD.i386
# I find Micro GNU Emacs (mg) to be both light and effective for this task.
#	-- normally I would use vimdiff
#
pkg_add -r mg && rehash				# if using mg !
cat > ~/.mg
auto-fill-mode
set-fill-column 78
global-set-key "\^x\^f" find-file
global-set-key "\^h" delete-backward-char
set-default-mode blink
^D						# end of ~/.mg

diff -u /usr/src/sys/i386/conf/GENERIC /PCBSD/conf/PCBSD.i386 > /tmp/kern.diff
cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf
mg KAI
	...				# kernel config attached at EOF
					# used GENERIC and /tmp/kern.diff to
					# write the file if needed.

cd /usr/src				# compile & install kernel
make -j12 buildkernel KERNCONF=KAI
	...				# roughly 10 minutes later..
make -j12 installkernel KERNCONF=KAI
	...				
umount /mnt && cdcontrol -f /dev/acd0 eject
reboot					# let's rock it and roll on to KDE




On reboot, I was greeted with KDM, PC-BSDs login theme, and a clean startup of KDE (no error message popups). I was able to install and use the Firefox PBI from PBIDir without problems. But as one can see in the screen shots, there are sound system related core dumps



Free Image Hosting at www.ImageShack.us

Free Image Hosting at www.ImageShack.us

Free Image Hosting at www.ImageShack.us



I was also interested to see that there is now a 'snd_emu10kx' driver added in FreeBSD 7.0-Release which supports my card. So I guess I won't have to manually compile the 'outdated, unmaintained, etc' audio/emu10kx port to get working sound, the manual page seems to suggest it is the same driver more or less. I only had to add an entry to my loader.conf file to get it loaded before PC-BSD sound detection system, just like audio/emu10kx from ports it won't work (for me) if kldload'ed later on.




I found that although everything I tested was working fine, audio and video related apps were dumping core (mplayer at start, kaffeine during playback). So I did a pkg_delete on kaffeine and kaffeine-mozilla and reinstalled from packages and soon was blasting MP3's from a FAT32 partition ;-)




MPlayer needs to be recompiled as expected, The KDE sound system will likely need that to but otherwise I've observed no real breakages. Not that I've taken the time to test every single program!




Personal Opinions




If like me, your primary reason for using PC-BSD is a quick way of grabbing KDE -- you would be better off installing PC-BSD! As far as setting up a working desktop system, one can do that easy through FreeBSD. If one doesn't want to go into configuration details for 'extra's like PF or X11 using PC-BSD or DesktopBSD is a better idea anyway.





If all you want is PBI, export, compile, and install the necessary files from PC-BSDs SVN repository.





Kernel Configuration: KAI




Note to SATA hard drives out there, the ATA_STATIC_ID option effects device numbering. FreeBSD GENERIC kernel configuration uses it and detects my SATA drive as 'ad4', PC_BSD kernel configuration has it turned off and detects my drive as 'ad0' -- I only have one SATA II hard drive installed.




Changing the ATA_STATIC_ID kernel option means you will havve to make sure /etc/fstab is in working shape unless you want to see a mount root prompt.



#
# Custom FreeBSD 7.0 kernel based on PC-BSD 1.5 Kernel config for FreeBSD 6.3
#

cpu		I686_CPU
ident		KAI



#options		SCHED_$BSD		# 4BSD scheduler
options		SCHED_ULE		# ULE scheduler ;-)
options 	PREEMPTION		# ENABLE KERNEL THREAD PREEMPTION
options 	INET			# INTERNETWORKING
options 	INET6			# IPV6 COMMUNICATIONS PROTOCOLS
options 	SCTP			# STREAM CONTROL TRANSMISSION PROTOCOL
options 	FFS			# BERKELEY FAST FILESYSTEM
options 	SOFTUPDATES		# ENABLE FFS SOFT UPDATES SUPPORT
options 	UFS_ACL			# SUPPORT FOR ACCESS CONTROL LISTS
options 	UFS_DIRHASH		# IMPROVE PERFORMANCE ON BIG DIRECTORIES
options 	UFS_GJOURNAL		# ENABLE GJOURNAL-BASED UFS JOURNALING
options 	MD_ROOT			# MD IS A POTENTIAL ROOT device
options 	NFSCLIENT		# NETWORK FILESYSTEM CLIENT
options 	NFSSERVER		# NETWORK FILESYSTEM SERVER
options 	NFS_ROOT		# NFS USABLE AS /, REQUIRES NFSCLIENT
options 	MSDOSFS			# MSDOS FILESYSTEM
options 	CD9660			# ISO 9660 FILESYSTEM
options 	PROCFS			# PROCESS FILESYSTEM (REQUIRES PSEUDOFS)
options 	PSEUDOFS		# PSEUDO-FILESYSTEM FRAMEWORK
options 	GEOM_PART_GPT		# GUID PARTITION TABLES.
options 	GEOM_LABEL		# PROVIDES LABELIZATION
options 	COMPAT_43TTY		# BSD 4.3 TTY COMPAT [KEEP THIS!]
options 	COMPAT_FREEBSD4		# COMPATIBLE WITH FREEBSD4
options 	COMPAT_FREEBSD5		# COMPATIBLE WITH FREEBSD5
options 	COMPAT_FREEBSD6		# COMPATIBLE WITH FREEBSD6
options 	SCSI_DELAY=5000		# DELAY (IN MS) BEFORE PROBING SCSI
options 	KTRACE			# KTRACE(1) SUPPORT
options 	SYSVSHM			# SYSV-STYLE SHARED MEMORY
options 	SYSVMSG			# SYSV-STYLE MESSAGE QUEUES
options 	SYSVSEM			# SYSV-STYLE SEMAPHORES
options 	_KPOSIX_PRIORITY_SCHEDULING # POSIX P1003_1B REAL-TIME EXTENSIONS
options 	KBD_INSTALL_CDEV	# INSTALL A CDEV ENTRY IN /DEV
options 	ADAPTIVE_GIANT		# GIANT MUTEX IS ADAPTIVE.
options 	STOP_NMI		# STOP CPUS USING NMI INSTEAD OF IPI
options 	AUDIT			# SECURITY EVENT AUDITING

# TO MAKE AN SMP KERNEL, THE NEXT TWO LINES ARE NEEDED
options 	SMP			# SYMMETRIC MULTIPROCESSOR KERNEL
device		apic			# I/O APIC

# CPU FREQUENCY CONTROL
device		cpufreq

# BUS SUPPORT.
device		eisa
device		pci


# FLOPPY DRIVES
device		fdc

# ATA AND ATAPI deviceS
device		ata
device		atadisk		# ATA DISK DRIVES
device		ataraid		# ATA RAID DRIVES
device		atapicd		# ATAPI CDROM DRIVES
device		atapifd		# ATAPI FLOPPY DRIVES
device		atapist		# ATAPI TAPE DRIVES
options 	ATA_STATIC_ID	# STATIC device NUMBERING
device 		atapicam	# Atapi CAM support

# SCSI CONTROLLERS
device		ahb		# EISA AHA1742 FAMILY
device		ahc		# AHA2940 AND ONBOARD AIC7XXX deviceS
options 	AHC_REG_PRETTY_PRINT	# PRINT REGISTER BITFIELDS IN DEBUG
					# OUTPUT.  ADDS ~128K TO DRIVER.
device		ahd		# AHA39320/29320 AND ONBOARD AIC79XX deviceS
options 	AHD_REG_PRETTY_PRINT	# PRINT REGISTER BITFIELDS IN DEBUG
					# OUTPUT.  ADDS ~215K TO DRIVER.
device		amd		# AMD 53C974 (TEKRAM DC-390(T))
device		isp		# QLOGIC FAMILY
#device 	ispfw		# FIRMWARE FOR QLOGIC HBAS- NORMALLY A MODULE
device		mpt		# LSI-LOGIC MPT-FUSION
#device		ncr		# NCR/SYMBIOS LOGIC
device		sym		# NCR/SYMBIOS LOGIC (NEWER CHIPSETS + THOSE OF `NCR')
device		trm		# TEKRAM DC395U/UW/F DC315U ADAPTERS

device		adv		# ADVANSYS SCSI ADAPTERS
device		adw		# ADVANSYS WIDE SCSI ADAPTERS
device		aha		# ADAPTEC 154X SCSI ADAPTERS
device		aic		# ADAPTEC 15[012]X SCSI ADAPTERS, AIC-6[23]60.
device		bt		# BUSLOGIC/MYLEX MULTIMASTER SCSI ADAPTERS

device		ncv		# NCR 53C500
device		nsp		# WORKBIT NINJA SCSI-3
device		stg		# TMC 18C30/18C50

# SCSI PERIPHERALS
device		scbus		# SCSI BUS (REQUIRED FOR SCSI)
device		ch		# SCSI MEDIA CHANGERS
device		da		# DIRECT ACCESS (DISKS)
device		sa		# SEQUENTIAL ACCESS (TAPE ETC)
device		cd		# CD
device		pass		# PASSTHROUGH device (DIRECT SCSI ACCESS)
device		ses		# SCSI ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES (AND SAF-TE)

# RAID CONTROLLERS INTERFACED TO THE SCSI SUBSYSTEM
device		amr		# AMI MEGARAID
device		arcmsr		# ARECA SATA II RAID
device		asr		# DPT SMARTRAID V, VI AND ADAPTEC SCSI RAID
device		ciss		# COMPAQ SMART RAID 5*
device		dpt		# DPT SMARTCACHE III, IV - SEE NOTES FOR options
device		hptmv		# HIGHPOINT ROCKETRAID 182X
device		hptrr		# HIGHPOINT ROCKETRAID 17XX, 22XX, 23XX, 25XX
device		iir		# INTEL INTEGRATED RAID
device		ips		# IBM (ADAPTEC) SERVERAID
device		mly		# MYLEX ACCELERAID/EXTREMERAID
device		twa		# 3WARE 9000 SERIES PATA/SATA RAID

# RAID CONTROLLERS
device		aac		# ADAPTEC FSA RAID
device		aacp		# SCSI PASSTHROUGH FOR AAC (REQUIRES CAM)
device		ida		# COMPAQ SMART RAID
device		mfi		# LSI MEGARAID SAS
device		mlx		# MYLEX DAC960 FAMILY
device		pst		# PROMISE SUPERTRAK SX6000
device		twe		# 3WARE ATA RAID

# ATKBDC0 CONTROLS BOTH THE KEYBOARD AND THE PS/2 MOUSE
device		atkbdc		# AT KEYBOARD CONTROLLER
device		atkbd		# AT KEYBOARD
device		psm		# PS/2 MOUSE


device		vga		# VGA VIDEO CARD DRIVER

device		splash		# SPLASH SCREEN AND SCREEN SAVER SUPPORT

# SYSCONS IS THE DEFAULT CONSOLE DRIVER, RESEMBLING AN SCO CONSOLE
device		sc

device		agp		# SUPPORT SEVERAL AGP CHIPSETS

# POWER MANAGEMENT SUPPORT (SEE NOTES FOR MORE options)
#device		apm
# ADD SUSPEND/RESUME SUPPORT FOR THE I8254.
device		pmtimer

# PCCARD (PCMCIA) SUPPORT
# PCMCIA AND CARDBUS BRIDGE SUPPORT
device		cbb		# CARDBUS (YENTA) BRIDGE
device		pccard		# PC CARD (16-BIT) BUS
device		cardbus		# CARDBUS (32-BIT) BUS

# SERIAL (COM) PORTS
device		sio		# 8250, 16[45]50 BASED SERIAL PORTS
device		uart		# GENERIC UART DRIVER

# PARALLEL PORT
device		ppc
device		ppbus		# PARALLEL PORT BUS (REQUIRED)
device		lpt		# PRINTER
device		plip		# TCP/IP OVER PARALLEL
device		ppi		# PARALLEL PORT INTERFACE device
#device		vpo		# REQUIRES SCBUS AND DA

# IF YOU'VE GOT A "DUMB" SERIAL OR PARALLEL PCI CARD THAT IS
# SUPPORTED BY THE PUC(4) GLUE DRIVER, UNCOMMENT THE FOLLOWING
# LINE TO ENABLE IT (CONNECTS TO SIO, UART AND/OR PPC DRIVERS):
#device		puc

# PCI ETHERNET NICS.
device		de		# DEC/INTEL DC21X4X (``TULIP'')
device		em		# INTEL PRO/1000 ADAPTER GIGABIT ETHERNET CARD
device		ixgb		# INTEL PRO/10GBE ETHERNET CARD
device		le		# AMD AM7900 LANCE AND AM79C9XX PCNET
device		txp		# 3COM 3CR990 (``TYPHOON'')
device		vx		# 3COM 3C590, 3C595 (``VORTEX'')

# PCI ETHERNET NICS THAT USE THE COMMON MII BUS CONTROLLER CODE.
# NOTE: BE SURE TO KEEP THE 'device MIIBUS' LINE IN ORDER TO USE THESE NICS!
device		miibus		# MII BUS SUPPORT
device		bce		# BROADCOM BCM5706/BCM5708 GIGABIT ETHERNET
device		bfe		# BROADCOM BCM440X 10/100 ETHERNET
device		bge		# BROADCOM BCM570XX GIGABIT ETHERNET
device		dc		# DEC/INTEL 21143 AND VARIOUS WORKALIKES
device		fxp		# INTEL ETHEREXPRESS PRO/100B (82557, 82558)
device		lge		# LEVEL 1 LXT1001 GIGABIT ETHERNET
device		msk		# MARVELL/SYSKONNECT YUKON II GIGABIT ETHERNET
device		nfe		# NVIDIA NFORCE MCP ON-BOARD ETHERNET
device		nge		# NATSEMI DP83820 GIGABIT ETHERNET
#device		nve		# NVIDIA NFORCE MCP ON-BOARD ETHERNET NETWORKING
device		pcn		# AMD AM79C97X PCI 10/100 (PRECEDENCE OVER 'LE')
device		re		# REALTEK 8139C+/8169/8169S/8110S
device		rl		# REALTEK 8129/8139
device		sf		# ADAPTEC AIC-6915 (``STARFIRE'')
device		sis		# SILICON INTEGRATED SYSTEMS SIS 900/SIS 7016
device		sk		# SYSKONNECT SK-984X & SK-982X GIGABIT ETHERNET
device		ste		# SUNDANCE ST201 (D-LINK DFE-550TX)
device		stge		# SUNDANCE/TAMARACK TC9021 GIGABIT ETHERNET
device		ti		# ALTEON NETWORKS TIGON I/II GIGABIT ETHERNET
device		tl		# TEXAS INSTRUMENTS THUNDERLAN
device		tx		# SMC ETHERPOWER II (83C170 ``EPIC'')
device		vge		# VIA VT612X GIGABIT ETHERNET
device		vr		# VIA RHINE, RHINE II
device		wb		# WINBOND W89C840F
device		xl		# 3COM 3C90X (``BOOMERANG'', ``CYCLONE'')

# ISA ETHERNET NICS.  PCCARD NICS INCLUDED.
device		cs		# CRYSTAL SEMICONDUCTOR CS89X0 NIC
# 'device ED' REQUIRES 'device MIIBUS'
device		ed		# NE[12]000, SMC ULTRA, 3C503, DS8390 CARDS
device		ex		# INTEL ETHEREXPRESS PRO/10 AND PRO/10+
device		ep		# ETHERLINK III BASED CARDS
device		fe		# FUJITSU MB8696X BASED CARDS
device		ie		# ETHEREXPRESS 8/16, 3C507, STARLAN 10 ETC.
device		sn		# SMC'S 9000 SERIES OF ETHERNET CHIPS
device		xe		# XIRCOM PCCARD ETHERNET

# WIRELESS NIC CARDS
device		wlan		# 802.11 SUPPORT
device		wlan_wep	# 802.11 WEP SUPPORT
device		wlan_ccmp	# 802.11 CCMP SUPPORT
device		wlan_tkip	# 802.11 TKIP SUPPORT
device		wlan_amrr	# AMRR TRANSMIT RATE CONTROL ALGORITHM
device		wlan_scan_ap	# 802.11 AP MODE SCANNING
device		wlan_scan_sta	# 802.11 STA MODE SCANNING
device		an		# AIRONET 4500/4800 802.11 WIRELESS NICS.
device		ath		# ATHEROS PCI/CARDBUS NIC'S
device		ath_hal		# ATHEROS HAL (HARDWARE ACCESS LAYER)
device		ath_rate_sample	# SAMPLERATE TX RATE CONTROL FOR ATH
device		awi		# BAYSTACK 660 AND OTHERS
device		ral		# RALINK TECHNOLOGY RT2500 WIRELESS NICS.
device		wi		# WAVELAN/INTERSIL/SYMBOL 802.11 WIRELESS NICS.
#device		wl		# OLDER NON 802.11 WAVELAN WIRELESS NIC.

# PSEUDO deviceS.
device		loop		# NETWORK LOOPBACK
device		random		# ENTROPY device
device		ether		# ETHERNET SUPPORT
device		sl		# KERNEL SLIP
device		ppp		# KERNEL PPP
device		tun		# PACKET TUNNEL.
device		pty		# PSEUDO-TTYS (TELNET ETC)
device		md		# MEMORY "DISKS"
device		gif		# IPV6 AND IPV4 TUNNELING
device		faith		# IPV6-TO-IPV4 RELAYING (TRANSLATION)
device		firmware	# FIRMWARE ASSIST MODULE

# THE `BPF' device ENABLES THE BERKELEY PACKET FILTER.
# BE AWARE OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF ENABLING THIS!
# NOTE THAT 'BPF' IS REQUIRED FOR DHCP.
device		bpf		# BERKELEY PACKET FILTER

# USB SUPPORT
device		uhci		# UHCI PCI->USB INTERFACE
device		ohci		# OHCI PCI->USB INTERFACE
device		ehci		# EHCI PCI->USB INTERFACE (USB 2.0)
device		usb		# USB BUS (REQUIRED)
#device		udbp		# USB DOUBLE BULK PIPE deviceS
device		ugen		# GENERIC
device		uhid		# "HUMAN INTERFACE deviceS"
device		ukbd		# KEYBOARD
device		ulpt		# PRINTER
device		umass		# DISKS/MASS STORAGE - REQUIRES SCBUS AND DA
device		ums		# MOUSE
device		ural		# RALINK TECHNOLOGY RT2500USB WIRELESS NICS
device		rum		# RALINK TECHNOLOGY RT2501USB WIRELESS NICS
device		urio		# DIAMOND RIO 500 MP3 PLAYER
device		uscanner	# SCANNERS
# USB ETHERNET, REQUIRES MIIBUS
device		aue		# ADMTEK USB ETHERNET
device		axe		# ASIX ELECTRONICS USB ETHERNET
device		cdce		# GENERIC USB OVER ETHERNET
device		cue		# CATC USB ETHERNET
device		kue		# KAWASAKI LSI USB ETHERNET
device		rue		# REALTEK RTL8150 USB ETHERNET

# FIREWIRE SUPPORT
device		firewire	# FIREWIRE BUS CODE
device		sbp		# SCSI OVER FIREWIRE (REQUIRES SCBUS AND DA)
device		fwe		# ETHERNET OVER FIREWIRE (NON-STANDARD!)
device		fwip		# IP OVER FIREWIRE (RFC 2734,3146)
device		dcons		# DUMB CONSOLE DRIVER
device		dcons_crom	# CONFIGURATION ROM FOR DCONS


#
# from PC-BSD conf
#
options		LIBICONV
options		LIBMCHAIN
options		CD9660_ICONV
options		MSDOSFS_ICONV
options		NTFS
options		NTFS_ICONV
options		UDF
options		UDF_ICONV
options		GEOM_UZIP		# read only compressed disks
# wifi
device		wlan
device		wlan_wep
device		wlan_ccmp
device		wlan_tkip
device		an
device		ath
device		ath_hal
device		ath_rate_sample
device		awi
device		ral
device		wi
device		iwi
device		ipw
device		firmware
options		DEVICE_POLLING
device		pf
device		pflog
device		pfsync
options		ALTQ
options		ALTQ_CBQ
options		ALTQ_RED
options		ALTQ_RIO
options		ALTQ_HFSC
options		ALTQ_CDNR
options		ALTQ_PRIQ
options		ALTQ_NOPCC


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